FSI Football Science Update


Melatonin supplementation alleviates cellular damage and physical performance decline induced by an intensive training period in professional soccer players.

Farjallah MA, Ghattassi K, Kamoun A, Graja A, Ben Mahmoud L, Driss T, Jamoussi K, Sahnoun Z, Souissi N, Zmijewski P, Hammouda O.

PLoS One. 2022 Sep 2;17(9):e0273719. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273719. eCollection 2022.

This study on 20 soccer players who participated in an exhaustive six-day training schedule associated with daily 5 mg oral melatonin or placebo ingestion found that melatonin intake significantly prevented an increase in advanced oxidation protein products and increased the antioxidant enzyme activity (i.e., superoxide dismutase), prevented an increase of biomarkers of renal function (e.g., creatinine) and biomarkers of muscle (e.g., creatine kinase) and liver (e.g., gamma-glutamyltransferase) damage. Furthermore, melatonin alleviated the deterioration in physical performance (countermovement jump, five-jump test and 20-m sprint).


Rate of torque development as a discriminator of playing level in collegiate female soccer players.

Palmer TB, Akehi K. 

J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2022 Sep 1;22(3):326-335.

This study in collegiate female soccer players (11 starters and 13 non-starters) found that the starters produced significantly greater knee extension and flexion peak rate of torque development RTD, RTD at 0-100 (RTD100) and 0-200 (RTD200) ms than the non-starters.


Cold Water Immersion Improves the Recovery of Both Central and Peripheral Fatigue Following Simulated Soccer Match-Play. 

Bouchiba M, Bragazzi NL, Zarzissi S, Turki M, Zghal F, Grati MA, Daab W, Ayadi F, Rebai H, Ibn Hadj Amor H, Hureau TJ, Bouzid MA.

Front Physiol. 2022 Aug 15;13:860709. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2022.860709. eCollection 2022.

In this randomized study, 12 soccer players completed a 90-min simulated soccer match followed by either cold water immersion CWI or thermoneutral water immersion (TWI, sham condition). Smaller reductions in CWI than TWI were found in average quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction MVC (-9.9% vs-23.7%), voluntary activation VA (-3.7% vs-15.4%) and twitch force (-15.7% vs -24.8%) immediately after the intervention. These parameters remained lower compared to baseline up to 48-72 h in TWI while they all recovered within 24 h in CWI. The 20 m sprint performance was less impaired in CWI than TWI (+11.1vs. +18%) while SJ and CMJ were not affected by the recovery strategy. Plasma LDH, yet no CK, were less increased during recovery in CWI compared to TWI.