FSI Football Science Update

A classification of specific movement skills and patterns during sprinting in English Premier League soccer.

Caldbeck P(1), Dos’Santos T(2)(3).

PLoS One. 2022 Nov 11;17(11):e0277326. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0277326. eCollection 2022.

This study analysed video footage of 901 sprint efforts (≥ 7.0 m/s) from 10 matches of an English Premier League soccer team (2017-2018), using the Football Sprint Movement Classification System. Most sprinting actions begun from a linear initiation position (63%), without a change of direction (COD) (48%), and from forward travelling (linear and diagonal) transition movements (68%), with a rolling acceleration (66%), often performed with a degree of curvature (86%), with torso rotation (62%), and typically end with an action such as duelling with an opponent or involvement with the ball (49%). This sprint characteristics only slightly differed across playing positions.



Association of the CKM rs8111989 Polymorphism with Injury Epidemiology in Football Players.

Varillas-Delgado D(1), Morencos E(1)(2), Gutierrez-Hellín J(1), Aguilar-Navarro M(1), Maestro A(2), Perucho T(3), Coso JD(4).

Int J Sports Med. 2022 Nov 11. doi: 10.1055/a-1945-8982

This systematic review of 48 final studies found that menstrual disorders (primary and secondary amenorrhea, and oligomenorrhea) had higher prevalence in gymnastics and endurance disciplines. However, team sports modalities such as volleyball and soccer also presented a considerable percentage of menstrual disorders compared to the general population.



A Pilot Study on the Prediction of Non-Contact Muscle Injuries Based on ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D Polymorphisms in Professional Soccer Athletes.

de Almeida KY(1), Cetolin T(2), Marrero AR(3), Aguiar Junior AS(2), Mohr P(4), Kikuchi N(1).

Br J Sports Med. 2022 Oct 31:bjsports-2022-105890. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2022-105890

This study on blood samples of 83 professional athletes from the Brazilian Championship followed through 3 seasons found that ACTN3 XX individuals had a higher frequency of severe injuries compared to the RX and RR genotypes, and ACE II genotype had almost 2 fold the number of injuries per season compared to those with the ID+DD genotypes. The combination of the ACTN3 577X allele and the ACE II genotype showed an increased (100%) number of injuries per season.



Youth Sports Specialization and Its Effect on Professional, Elite, and Olympic Athlete Performance, Career Longevity, and Injury Rates: A Systematic Review.

McLellan M(1), Allahabadi S(2), Pandya NK(2).

Orthop J Sports Med. 2022 Nov 4;10(11):23259671221129594. doi: 10.1177/23259671221129594. eCollection 2022 Nov

This systematic review of 29 final studies on youth sports specialization in professional, elite, and/or Olympic athletes found that all 8 articles that commented on injury risk demonstrated reduction in injury risk in athletes who delayed specialization. Also, performance benefits were apparent with later specialization in 7 of 9 articles. 5 of 9 articles did not find association between career longevity and sports specialization.



Acute fuelling and recovery practices of academy soccer players: implications for growth, maturation, and physical performance.

Stables RG(1), Hannon MP(1), Costello NB(2), McHaffie SJ(1), Sodhi JS(3), Close GL(1), Morton JP(1).

Sci Med Footb. 2022 Nov 9. doi: 10.1080/24733938.2022.2146178

This study on 48 male adolescent (U12, 13, 14, 15/16, 18 and 23) players from an English Premier League academy with self-reported dietary intake and physical activity diary over a 3-day in-season training period found that average timing of pre-training energy intake ranged from 40 mins (U15/U16 players) to 114 mins (U18), and mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake ranged from 0.8 (U23) to 1.5g.kg-1 (U12). Average timing of post-training energy intake ranged from 39 mins (U14) to 70 mins (U23) and mean CHO intake ranged from 1.6 (U12) to 0.9 g.kg-1 (U14). In contrast to sub-optimal CHO intakes, all age groups consumed sufficient protein intake in the post-training period (i.e. > 0.3 g.kg-1). We conclude academy soccer players habitually practice sub-optimal acute fuelling and recovery strategies, the consequence of which could impair growth, maturation and physical performance.



Selected Immunoendocrine Measures for Monitoring Responses to Training and Match Load in Professional Association Football: A Review of the Evidence.

Springham M(1)(2), Newton RU(2), Strudwick AJ(3), Waldron M(4)(5)(6).

17. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2022 Nov 7:1-10. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2022-0226.

This critical review states that, of the biomarkers relating to player “stress balance,” immunoglobulin-A levels are related with training or match loads, psychophysiological stress and perceived fatigue, and increased risk of compromised mucosal immunity and upper respiratory tract infection. Testosterone and cortisol concentrations and the testosterone-cortisol ratio are sensitive to player load and related with fatigue, sleep quality, and muscle soreness, but their response is often inconsistent and likely influenced by player training status and non-sport-related stressors. Overall, there is sufficient evidence to support the use of salivary immunoglobulin-A, testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone:cortisol measures as part of a multivariate, individualized player monitoring system in professional football.