FSI Football Science Update

 

The Five-substitution Option Enhances Teams’ Running Performance at High Speed in Football.

López-Valenciano A, Moreno-Perez V, Campo RL, Resta R, Coso JD.

Int J Sports Med. 2023 Jan 20. doi: 10.1055/a-1982-9808

This comparative analysis performed in 17 professional football teams for the 2019-2020 (up to three substitutions) vs 2020-2021 (five substitutions option) seasons in LaLiga found that the five-substitution option increased the number of substitutions (from 2.9±0.1 to 4.2±1.0) but it did not change the time selected for the first substitution (from 57.5±13.0 to 56.2±13.7 min). Total running distance was similar but running distance at more than 21 km/h increased, associated with a higher distance covered by starting players rather than an effect of substitute players.

 

The Assessment of Ankle Range-of-Motion and Its Relationship with Overall Muscle Strength in a Cross-Section of Soccer Players.

Francia P, Ferri Marini C, Bocchi L, Piccini B, Seghieri G, Federici A, Toni S, Lucertini F.

Sports (Basel). 2023 Jan 5;11(1):12. doi: 10.3390/sports11010012

This study compared 204 Soccer players (range 6.7-45.1 years) with 87 matched controls (range: 7.5-45.2 years). Ankle ROM in both plantar flexion (APF) and dorsiflexion (ADF) showed a significant reduction in players, and age had a significant effect on ADF.

 

Acute Adductor Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review on Diagnostic Imaging, Treatment, and Prevention.

Farrell SG, Hatem M, Bharam S.

Am J Sports Med. 2023 Jan 20:3635465221140923. doi: 10.1177/03635465221140923

Systematic review of 30 studies involving 594 male patients with a mean age 26.2 years playing soccer (62%), basketball (14%), futsal (6%), American football (3%), and ice hockey and handball (2%). Risk factors for acute adductor injury were previous acute groin injury, adductor weakness compared with the uninjured side, any injury in the previous season, and reduced rotational hip range of motion. For complete adductor tears, the average time to return to play was 8.9 weeks in patients treated nonoperatively and 14.2 weeks for patients treated surgically. Greater stump retraction was observed in individuals treated surgically. Partial acute adductor tears were treated nonoperatively with physical therapy in all studies and the average time to return to play was 1 to 6.9 weeks depending on the injury grade. The efficacy of adductor strengthening on preventing acute adductor tears has controversial results in the literature.

 

Effects of sprint versus strength training on risk factors for hamstring injury in football players.

Sancese A, Taylor L, Walsh G(1), Byrd E, Delextrat A.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2023 Jan 18. doi: 10.23736/S0022-4707.22.14529-9

In this study, 18 male university football players were randomly allocated to a sprint or Nordic Hamstrings Exercise training program. There were significant increases in hamstring isokinetic eccentric peak torque as well as a shift in torque production towards knee extension in both groups. No significant effect was noted on sprint performance or sprint mechanics.

 

London International Consensus and Delphi study on hamstring injuries part 1: classification.

Paton BM, Court N, Giakoumis M, Head P, Kayani B, Kelly S, Kerkhoffs GMMJ, Moore J, Moriarty P, Murphy S, Plastow R, Pollock N, Read P, Stirling B, Tulloch L, van Dyk N, Wilson MG, Wood D, Haddad F.

7. Br J Sports Med. 2023 Jan 17:bjsports-2021-105371. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2021-105371

This survey between international hamstring experts (sports medicine physicians, physiotherapists, surgeons, trainers and sports scientists) found that most commonly, experts used the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC) (58%), Munich (12%) and Barcelona (6%) classification systems. This consensus panel recommends hamstring injury classification systems evolve to integrate imaging and clinical parameters around: individual muscles, injury mechanism, sporting demand, functional criteria and patient-reported outcome measures.

 

London International Consensus and Delphi study on hamstring injuries part 2: operative management.

Plastow R, Kerkhoffs GMMJ, Wood D, Paton BM, Kayani B, Pollock N, Court N, Giakoumis M, Head P, Kelly S, Moore J, Moriarty P, Murphy S, Read P, Stirling B, Tulloch L, van Dyk N, Wilson M, Haddad F.

9. Br J Sports Med. 2023 Jan 17:bjsports-2021-105383. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2021-105383

This survey between international hamstring experts (sports medicine physicians, physiotherapists, surgeons, trainers and sports scientists) found that indications for operative intervention included: gapping at the zone of tendinous injury and loss of tension, symptomatic displaced bony avulsions, and proximal free tendon injuries with functional compromise refractory to non-operative treatment. Other important considerations for operative intervention included: the demands of the athlete/patient and the expected functional outcome, the risk of functional loss/performance deficit with non-operative management, and the capacity to restore anatomy and function. Further research is needed to determine whether surgery can reduce the risk of reinjury.

 

London International Consensus and Delphi study on hamstring injuries part 3: rehabilitation, running and return to sport.

Paton BM, Read P, van Dyk N, Wilson MG, Pollock N, Court N, Giakoumis M, Head P, Kayani B, Kelly S, Kerkhoffs GMMJ, Moore J, Moriarty P, Murphy S, Plastow R, Stirling B, Tulloch L, Wood D, Haddad F.

10. Br J Sports Med. 2023 Jan 17:bjsports-2021-105384. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2021-105384

This survey between international hamstring experts (sports medicine physicians, physiotherapists, surgeons, trainers and sports scientists) found that consensus centred around: exercise selection and dosage, impact of the kinetic chain, criteria to progress exercise, running and sprinting in rehabilitation and criteria for return to sport (RTS). Benchmarks for flexibility and strength and adjuncts to rehabilitation did not reach agreement. This consensus panel recommends individualised rehabilitation based on the athlete, sporting demands, involved muscle(s) and injury type and severity. Early-stage rehab should avoid high strain loads and rates. Loading is important but with less consensus on optimum progression and dosage. This panel recommends rehabilitation progress based on capacity and symptoms, with pain thresholds dependent on activity, except pain-free criteria supported for sprinting. Experts focus on the demands and capacity required for match play when deciding the rehabilitation end goal and timing of RTS. Additional research is required to determine the optimal load dose, timing, criteria and testing metrics to determine safe rapid progression in rehabilitation and safe RTS. Further research would benefit optimising: prescription of running and sprinting, the application of adjuncts in rehabilitation and treatment of kinetic chain HSI factors.