27 Feb FSI Football Science Update
Activity Distribution Among the Hamstring Muscles During the Nordic Hamstring Exercise: A Multichannel Surface Electromyography Study.
Suskens JJM, Reurink G, Tol JL Kerkhoffs GMMJ, Goedhart EA, Maas H, van Dieën JH.
J Appl Biomech. 2023 Jan 1:1-11. doi: 10.1123/jab.2022-0102. Online ahead of sprint
This study used hamstrings multichannel electromyography in 35 male basketball players during the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE). Heterogeneous muscle activity was found between 38% and 62% and over the whole eccentric contraction phase within the semitendinosus and the semimembranosus, respectively. Muscle activity of the semitendinosus was significantly higher than that of the biceps femoris long head, the relative contribution of the semitendinosus being the highest among hamstring muscles.
Weekly variations of accelerometer variables and workload of professional soccer players from different positions throughout a season.
Nobari H, Praça GM, da Glória Teles Bredt S, González PP, Clemente FM, Carlos-Vivas J, Ardigò LP.
Sci Rep. 2023 Feb 14;13(1):2625. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-29793-5
This study divided 21 professional soccer-players in: 4 lateral-defenders and 4 winger-players formed LDW group, 4 central-defenders and 4 forwards formed CDF group, and 6 midfielder-players formed MDF group. Accelerometer-based variables were collected during training and match during the 48 weeks of the season. Results revealed variations in the weekly load throughout the season, without differences between the different groups.
The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury in youth and male soccer athletes: an evaluation of 17,108 players over two consecutive seasons with an age-based sub-analysis.
Astur DC, Margato GF, Zobiole A, Pires D, Funchal LFZ, Jimenez AE, Freitas EV, Cohen M.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2023 Feb 13. doi: 10.1007/s00167-023-07331-0
In this study, 17108 young male soccer players were retrospectively reviewed from sixty-three professional clubs in the four highest Brazilian soccer divisions. A total of 336 primary ACL injuries were diagnosed over two seasons, which corresponds to 2% of the included athletes. There were 11 cases (0.3%) in the under-13, 53 cases (1.3%) in the under-15, 107 cases (2.5%) in the under-17, and 165 cases (3.8%) in the under-20 age category. There was a higher incidence of ACL injury in the older age groups.
Collagen supplementation augments changes in patellar tendon properties in female soccer players.
Lee J, Bridge JE, Clark DR, Stewart CE, Erskine RM.
Front Physiol. 2023 Jan 26;14:1089971. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2023.1089971. eCollection 2023
This study compared 17 Under 21 female football players in 2 groups, one consuming 30g of collagen hydrolysate daily and other one consuming placebo. After 10 weeks of similar football and physical training, the players consuming collagen showed increased Patellar Tendon stiffness [+18.0% vs. +5.1%] and Young’s modulus [+17.3% vs. +4.8 %] in ultrasonography, even if tendon cross-sectional area did not change in either group.
Majority of competitive soccer players return to soccer following hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement: female and older aged players are less likely to return to soccer.
Marom N, Olsen R, Burger JA, Dooley MS, Coleman SH, Ranawat AS, Kelly BT, Nawabi DH.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2023 Feb 21. doi: 10.1007/s00167-023-07349-4
This retrospective study in 87 competitive soccer players who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement FAI found that 65 players (74.7%) returned to soccer, but only 43 players (49% of all included players) returned to pre-injury level of play. The mean time to return to soccer was 33.1 ± 26.3 weeks, and female and older aged players were less likely to return to soccer.
London International Consensus and Delphi study on hamstring injuries part 1: classification.
Paton BM, Court N, Giakoumis M, Head P, Kayani B, Kelly S, Kerkhoffs GMMJ, Moore J, Moriarty P, Murphy S, Plastow R, Pollock N, Read P, Stirling B, Tulloch L, van Dyk N, Wilson MG, Wood D(20), Haddad F.
Br J Sports Med. 2023 Mar;57(5):254-265. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2021-105371. Epub 2023 Jan 17
This modified Delphi study surveyed a cohort of 46 international hamstring experts to build an international consensus on best-practice decision-making for the classification of hamstring injuries. Most commonly, experts used the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC) (58%), Munich (12%) and Barcelona (6%) classification systems for hamstring injury. This consensus panel recommends hamstring injury classification systems evolve to integrate imaging and clinical parameters around: individual muscles, injury mechanism, sporting demand, functional criteria and patient-reported outcome measures.
London International Consensus and Delphi study on hamstring injuries part 2: operative management.
Plastow R, Kerkhoffs GMMJ, Wood D, Paton BM, Kayani B, Pollock N, Court N, Giakoumis M, Head P, Kelly S, Moore J, Moriarty, Murphy S, Read P, Stirling B, Tulloch L, van Dyk N, Wilson M, Haddad F.
Br J Sports Med. 2023 Mar;57(5):266-277. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2021-105383. Epub 2023 Jan 17
This modified Delphi study surveyed a cohort of 46 international hamstring experts, that agreed that the indications for operative hamstrings injury intervention included: gapping at the zone of tendinous injury, loss of tension, symptomatic displaced bony avulsions, and proximal free tendon injuries with functional compromise refractory to non-operative treatment. Other important considerations for operative intervention included: the demands of the athlete/patient and the expected functional outcome; the risk of functional loss/performance deficit with non-operative management, and the capacity to restore anatomy and function, Further research is needed to determine whether surgery can reduce the risk of reinjury.
London International Consensus and Delphi study on hamstring injuries part 3: rehabilitation, running and return to sport.
Paton BM, Read P, van Dyk N, Wilson MG, Pollock N, Court N, Giakoumis M, Head P, Kayani B, Kelly S, Kerkhoffs GMMJ, Moore J, Moriarty P, Murphy S, Plastow R, Stirling B, Tulloch L, Wood D, Haddad F.
Br J Sports Med. 2023 Mar;57(5):278-291. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2021-105384. Epub 2023 Jan 17
This modified Delphi study surveyed a cohort of 46 international hamstring experts, that recommended individualised rehabilitation based on the athlete, sporting demands, involved muscle(s) and injury type and severity. Early-stage rehab should avoid high strain loads and rates. Loading is important but with less consensus on optimum progression and dosage. The rehabilitation should progress based on capacity and symptoms, with pain thresholds dependent on activity, except pain-free criteria supported for sprinting. Experts focus on the demands and capacity required for match play when deciding the rehabilitation end goal and timing of RTS. Additional research is required to determine the optimal load dose, timing, criteria, monitoring, testing metrics, prescription of running and sprinting, application of adjuncts and treatment of kinetic chain injury factors.
Effectiveness of Conservative Interventions After Acute Hamstrings Injuries in Athletes: A Living Systematic Review.
Afonso J, Olivares-Jabalera J, Fernandes RJ, Clemente FM, Rocha-Rodrigues S, Claudino JG, Ramirez-Campillo R, Valente C, Andrade R, Espregueira-Mendes J.
Sports Med. 2023 Mar;53(3):615-635. doi: 10.1007/s40279-022-01783-z. Epub 2023 Jan 9
This systematic review of 14 studies comprising 730 athletes (mostly men with ages between 14 and 49 years) from different sports about conservative treatment of hamstrings injuries found with very low level of certainty that different exercise-based interventions showed comparable effects on time to return to play and the risk of reinjuries, with only eccentric lengthening exercises showing limited evidence in allowing a shorter time to RTP. The platelet-rich plasma treatment did not consistently reduce the time to RTP or have any effect on the risk of new hamstrings injuries.